Program management or programme management is the process of managing several related projects, often with the intention of improving an organization's performance. In practice and in its aims it is often closely related to systems engineering and industrial engineering.
The program manager has oversight of the purpose and status of the projects in a program and can use this oversight to support project-level activity to ensure the program goals are met by providing a decision-making capacity that cannot be achieved at project level or by providing the project manager with a program perspective when required, or as a sounding board for ideas and approaches to solving project issues that have program impacts. In a program there is a need to identify and manage cross-project dependencies and often the project management office (PMO) may not have sufficient insight of the risk, issues, requirements, design or solution to be able to usefully manage these. The program manager may be well placed to provide this insight by actively seeking out such information from the project managers although in large and/or complex projects, a specific role may be required. However this insight arises, the program manager needs this in order to be comfortable that the overall program goals are achievable.
The sequence of cards used by a Jacquard loom to produce a given pattern within weaved cloth. Invented in 1801, it used holes in punched cards to represent sewing loom arm movements in order to generate decorative patterns automatically.
The execution of a program is a series of actions following the instructions it contains. Each instruction produces effects that alter the state of the machine according to its predefined meaning.
While some machines are called programmable, for example a programmable thermostat or a musical synthesizer, they are in fact just devices which allow their users to select among a fixed set of a variety of options, rather than being controlled by programs written in a language (be it textual, visual or otherwise).
Upon its release, The Female Boss has received generally negative reviews from most music critics, with many critics panning the themes, intro of the album, production and some lyrical content, while some critics felt the dance songs were highlights. Commercially, the album opened with poor sales, debuting at number 35 on the UK Albums Chart and number 55 in Ireland.
Mitochondrial antiviral-signaling protein (MAVS) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the MAVSgene. The protein is also known by the names VISA (virus-induced signaling adapter), IPS-1 and Cardif. Aggregated MAVS forms protease resistant prion-like aggregates that activate IRF3 dimerization.
Double-stranded RNA viruses are recognized in a cell type-dependent manner by the transmembrane receptor TLR3 or by the cytoplasmic RNA helicases MDA5 and RIGI. These interactions initiate signaling pathways that differ in their initial steps but converge in the activation of the protein kinases IKKA (CHUK) and IKKB (IKBKB; MIM 603258), which activate NFKB, or TBK1 and IKBKE (IKBKE), which activate IRF3. Activated IRF3 and NFKB induce transcription of IFNβ (IFNB1). For the TLR3 pathway, the intermediary molecule before the pathways converge is the cytoplasmic protein TRIF (TICAM1). For RIGI, the intermediary protein is mitochondria-bound MAVS.